General information

The history of the former Yugoslavia is complicated. See this article for it. To understand the development of the bus building industry in the region it is necessary to give a quick overview,

The country came into existence in 1918, after the First World War, as the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In 1929 it became the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
After the Second World War, in 1945, it became the Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1963 it was renamed the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY), with six constituent socialist republics: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Slovenia, and two autonomous provinces, Kosovo and Vojvodina.
During the 1980’s, rising nationalism, ethnic tensions and economic problems led to the breakup of the country along the lines of its constituent republics, partly peaceful, but in Bosnia-Herzegowina and Croatia through uprisings and a devastating war.

The various countries became officially independent as follows:

Republic of Yugoslavia, 27 April 1992, in 2003 renamed Serbia and Montenegro
Republic of Croatia, 25 June 1991
Republic of Slovenia, 15 June 1991
Republic of Macedonia, 8 September 1991, renamed North Macedonia in 2018
Republic of Bosnia and Herzegowina, 3 March 1992

In 2006 Montenegro split off from Yugoslavia, leading to the creation of:
Republic of Serbia, 5 June 2006
Republic of Montenegro, 3 June 2006

In 2008 an uprising led to a declaration of independence of the Republic of Kosovo, 17 February 2008.

Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia, Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia-Herzegovina all are recognised states and members of the UN.
Kosovo is still a contested area and is only recognised by the US and several European countries.

We will mention here the bus builders that were active in Yugoslavia until the breakup of the country. Production and fleets will be treated under the various republics.

Bus builders in former Yugoslavia:

TAZ-Tvornica Autobusa Zagreb (Croatia), established 1930.
FAP-Fabrika automobila Priboj, Priboj (Serbia), established 1952.
FAMOS-Fabrika Motora Sarajevo, Sarajevo (Bosnia-Herzegovina)
SANOS, Skopje (Macedonia), established 1946 as FAS “11. Oktomvri” AD Skopje.
TAM-Tovarna Avtomobilov in Motorjev, Maribor (Slovenia)
IKARUS, Zemun (Serbia), established 1932 as aircraft manufacturer, since 1952 only buses, continued as IKARBUS.
Zastava (only chassis for a limited number of buses), established 1939.
Avtomontasza, Ljubljana (Slovenia). Bodywork, assembly of MAN buses.
Autokarosserija, Novi-Sad (Serbia). Continued in 1992 as Neobus.
Autoradgona, Gornja-Radgona (Slovenia). Midibus bodies on TAM chassis.

In 1950, cooperation was established between TAZ, FAP and Famos. In 1969, FAP Famos Beograd was established, which included FAP, Famos, TAZ, and Sanos. This close collaboration resulted in an exchange of parts and the use of standard components. TAM collaborated closely with Autokarosserija, with full integration in 1974.

In 1992, with the breakup of Yugoslavia and the subsequent boycott of Serbia, the bus building companies found themselves in a difficult situation, with established collaborations ending and markets reduced. Some survived some years, often under new ownership. Their fate is treated under the country pages.